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Resources

The college-readiness gap is well-documented and gravely concerning. Here is our collection of resources to help undestand the problem.

Writing

Achieve, “Rising to the Challenge: Are High School Students Prepared for College and Work? Key findings from surveys among recent high school graduates.” (2014). 

Attewell, Paul, and Thurston Domina. “Raising the bar: Curricular intensity and academic performance.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 30.1 (2008): 51-71.

Attewell, Paul, Scott Heil, and Liza Reisel. “What is academic momentum? And does it matter?.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 34.1 (2012): 27-44.

Barry, Mary Nguyen, and Michael Dannenberg. “Out of pocket: The high cost of inadequate high schools and high school student achievement on college affordability.” Education Reform Now (2016).

Briggs, Derek C. “Preparation for College Admission Exams. 2009 NACAC Discussion Paper.” National Association for College Admission Counseling (2009).

Chen, Xianglei. “Remedial Coursetaking at US Public 2-and 4-Year Institutions: Scope, Experiences, and Outcomes. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2016-405.” National Center for Education Statistics (2016).

Conley, David T. Understanding University Success. A Report from Standards for Success. Center for Educational Policy Research, 2003.

Conley, David T. “Redefining College Readiness.” Educational Policy Improvement Center (NJ1) (2007).

Conley, David T. College knowledge: What it really takes for students to succeed and what we can do to get them ready. John Wiley & Sons (2008a).

Conley, David T. “Rethinking college readiness.” New directions for higher education 2008.144 (2008b): 3-13.

Conley, David T., et al. “Reaching the Goal: The Applicability and Importance of the Common Core State Standards to College and Career Readiness.” Educational Policy Improvement Center (NJ1) (2011).

ConnectEd: The California Center for College and Career. “College and Career Readiness: What Do We Mean? A Proposed Framework.” 2012. 

Ezarik, M. “The road not traveled.” District Administration 39.10 (2003): 34-38.

Greenwald, E., et al. “National assessment of educational progress: 1998 report card for the nation and the states.” Washington, DC: US Department of Education (1999).

Hoppe, Kerri E. “Postsecondary writing: First-year students’ perceptions of college writing preparedness.” (2014).

Howell, Jessica S., Michal Kurlaender, and Eric Grodsky. “Postsecondary preparation and remediation: Examining the effect of the Early Assessment Program at California State University.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 29.4 (2010): 726-748.

Jackson, Jacob, and Michal Kurlaender. “College readiness and college completion at broad access four-year institutions.” American Behavioral Scientist 58.8 (2014): 947-971.

Jimenez, Laura, and Scott Sargrad. “Are High School Diplomas Really a Ticket to College and Work? An Audit of State High School Graduation Requirements.” Center for American Progress. Posted April 2, 2018. 

Kirst, Michael W., and Kathy R. Bracco. “Bridging the great divide: How the K-12 and postsecondary split hurts students, and what can be done about it.” From high school to college: Improving opportunities for success in postsecondary education (2004): 1-30.

Long, Bridget T., and Angela Boatman. “The role of remedial and developmental courses in access and persistence.” The state of college access and completion: Improving college success for students from underrepresented groups 1 (2013): 1-24.

Long, Mark C., Dylan Conger, and Patrice Iatarola. “Effects of high school course-taking on secondary and postsecondary success.” American Educational Research Journal 49.2 (2012): 285-322.

Nagaoka, Jenny, et al. “Readiness for College: The Role of Noncognitive Factors and Context.” Voices in Urban Education 38 (2013): 45-52.

National Center for Education Statistics, “The Nation’s Report Card: Writing: 2011, National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grades 8 and 12.” (2012).

National Center for Education Statistics, “Digest of Education Statistics.” Table 326.10. (2016).  

NCHEMS Information Center for Higher Education Policymaking and Analysis. “Graduation Rates.” (2016).

Perna, Laura W., and Michael Armijo. “The persistence of unaligned K–12 and higher education systems: Why have statewide alignment efforts been ineffective?.” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 655.1 (2014): 16-35.

Persky, Hilary R., Mary C. Daane, and Ying Jin. “The Nation’s Report Card: Writing, 2002.” (2003).

Rippner, Jennifer A. “State P-20 councils and collaboration between K-12 and higher education.” Educational Policy 31.1 (2017): 3-38.

Salahu-Din, D., H. Persky, and J. Miller. “The Nation’s Report Card [TM]: Writing 2007. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grades 8 and 12. National, State, and Trial Urban District Results. NCES 2008-468.” National Center for Education Statistics (2008).

Shapiro, Doug, et al. “Completing college: A national view of student attainment rates–Fall 2011 cohort.” National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. Signature Report 14 (2017).

Shulock, Nancy, and Patrick M. Callan. “Beyond the rhetoric: Improving college readiness through coherent state policy.” National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education (2010).

Snyder, Thomas D., and Sally A. Dillow. Digest of education statistics 2011. National Center for Education Statistics (2012).

Spellings, Margaret. “A test of leadership.” Retrieved January 10 (2006): 2008.

Tsui, Lisa, and Eleanor Gao. “The efficacy of seminar courses.” Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice 8.2 (2006): 149-170.

Venezia, Andrea, and Laura Jaeger. “Transitions from high school to college.” The Future of Children 23.1 (2013): 117-136.

Venezia, Andrea, Michael Kirst, and Anthony Antonio. “Betraying the college dream.” The Bridge Project Stanford Institute for Higher Education (2003): 2-12.

Venezia, Andrea, and Michael Kirst. “Disconnect by Design: College Readiness Efforts Still Hampered by Divided K–12 and Higher Education Systems.” Shaping Education Policy. Routledge, 2017. 197-217.

Venezia, Andrea, and Daniel Voloch. “Using college placement exams as early signals of college readiness: An examination of California’s Early Assessment Program and New York’s At Home in College program.” New Directions for Higher Education 2012.158 (2012): 71-79.

Wyatt, Jeffrey N., et al. “The Development of an Index of Academic Rigor for College Readiness. Research Report No. 2011-11.” College Board (2012).

College Readiness

Applebee, Arthur N., and Judith A. Langer. “The State of Writing Instruction in America’s Schools: What Existing Data Tell Us.” Center on English Learning & Achievement (NJ3) (2006).

Applebee, Arthur, and Judith Langer. “The national study of writing instruction: Methods and procedures.” Albany, NY: Center on English Learning & Achievement. Retrieved December 27 (2011).

Applebee, Arthur N., Fran Lehr, and Anne Auten. “Learning to write in the secondary school: How and where.” The English Journal 70.5 (1981): 78-82.

Bangert-Drowns, Robert L., Marlene M. Hurley, and Barbara Wilkinson. “The effects of school-based writing-to-learn interventions on academic achievement: A meta-analysis.” Review of educational research 74.1 (2004): 29-58.

Bartholomae, David. “Writing with teachers: A conversation with Peter Elbow.” College Composition and Communication 46.1 (1995): 62-71.

Bazerman, Charles. Shaping written knowledge: The genre and activity of the experimental article in science. Vol. 356. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988.
 

Bazerman, Charles, and Paul Prior. “Participating in emergent socio-literate worlds: Genre, disciplinarity, interdisciplinarity.” Multidisciplinary perspectives on literacy research 2 (2005): 133-178.

Beaufort, Anne. “Developmental gains of a history major: A case for building a theory of disciplinary writing expertise.” Research in the Teaching of English (2004): 136-185.

Behizadeh, Nadia. “Adolescent Perspectives on Authentic Writing Instruction.” Journal of Language and Literacy Education 10.1 (2014a): 27-44.

Behizadeh, Nadia. “Mitigating the dangers of a single story: Creating large-scale writing assessments aligned with sociocultural theory.” Educational Researcher 43.3 (2014b): 125-136.

Berlin, James A. Rhetoric and reality: Writing instruction in American colleges, 1900-1985. SIU Press, 1987.

Binkley, Roberta, and Marissa Smith. “Re-Composing Space: Composition’s Rhetorical Geography.” Composition Forum. Vol. 15. Association of Teachers of Advanced Composition, 2006.

Bloom, Lynn Z. “The great paradigm shift and its legacy for the twenty-first century.” Composition studies in the new millennium: Rereading the past, rewriting the future (2003): 31-47.

Bizzell, Patricia. “Composing processes: An overview.” The teaching of writing (1986): 49-70.

Bridge, Connie A., Margaret Compton-Hall, and Susan Chambers Cantrell. “Classroom writing practices revisited: The effects of statewide reform on writing instruction.” The Elementary School Journal 98.2 (1997): 151-170.

Bridgeman, Brent, and Sybil B. Carlson. “Survey of academic writing tasks.” Written Communication 1.2 (1984): 247-280.

Brockman, Elizabeth, et al. “What do professors really say about college writing?.” English Journal(2011): 75-81.

Carter, Michael. “Ways of knowing, doing, and writing in the disciplines.” College composition and communication (2007): 385-418.

Cohen, Moshe, and Margaret Riel. “The effect of distant audiences on students’ writing.” American Educational Research Journal 26.2 (1989): 143-159.

Coker, David, and William Lewis. “Beyond writing next: A discussion of writing research and instructional uncertainty.” Harvard Educational Review 78.1 (2008): 231-251.

Condon, William, and Diane Kelly-Riley. “Assessing and teaching what we value: The relationship between college-level writing and critical thinking abilities.” Assessing Writing 9.1 (2004): 56-75.

Council of Writing Program Administrators, National Council of Teachers of English, National Writing Project. “Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing.” (2011).

Denecker, Christine. “Transitioning writers across the composition threshold: What we can learn from dual enrollment partnerships.” Composition Studies (2013): 27-50.

Duncheon, Julia C., and William G. Tierney. “Examining college writing readiness.” The Educational Forum. Vol. 78. No. 3. Routledge, 2014.

Englert, Carol Sue, et al. “Students’ metacognitive knowledge about how to write informational texts.” Learning Disability Quarterly 11.1 (1988): 18-46.

Faigley, Lester. “Nonacademic writing: The social perspective.” Writing in nonacademic settings (1985): 231-248.

Fallahi, Carolyn R. “Improving the Writing Skills of College Students.” Writing: A mosaic of new perspectives (2012): 209.

Flower, Linda, and John R. Hayes. “A cognitive process theory of writing.” College composition and communication 32.4 (1981): 365-387.

Fowler, R.  “On critical linguistics.” In C. Caldas-Coulthard & M. Coulthard (Eds.), Texts and practices: Readings in critical discourse analysis. London, UK: Routledge. 1996

Gilbert, Michael A. Coalescent argumentation. Routledge, 2013.

Graham, Steve. “It all starts here: Fixing our national writing crisis from the foundation.” Sapperstein Associates, Columbus, Ohio (2013).

Graham, Steve, and Karen R. Harris. “Strategy instruction and the teaching of writing.” Handbook of writing research (2006): 187-207.

Graham, Steve, and Karen R. Harris. “The role of self-regulation and transcription skills in writing and writing development.” Educational psychologist 35.1 (2000): 3-12.

Graham, Steve, and Dolores Perin. “Writing next-effective strategies to improve writing of adolescents in middle and high schools.” (2007a).

Graham, Steve, and Dolores Perin. “A meta-analysis of writing instruction for adolescent students.” (2007b): 445.

Graham, Steve, Shirley S. Schwartz, and Charles A. MacArthur. “Knowledge of writing and the composing process, attitude toward writing, and self-efficacy for students with and without learning disabilities.” Journal of learning disabilities 26.4 (1993): 237-249.

Graham, Steve, et al. “Teaching writing to middle school students: A national survey.” Reading and Writing 27.6 (2014): 1015-1042.
 

Harris, Karen R. Making the writing process work: Strategies for composition and self-regulation. Brookline Books, 1996.

Harrington, Susanmarie, et al. “WPA outcomes statement for first-year composition.” College English 63.3 (2001): 321-325. Version 3.0 adopted 2014. 

Hassel, Holly, and Joanne Baird Giordano. “Occupy writing studies: Rethinking college composition for the needs of the teaching majority.” College Composition and Communication (2013): 117-139.

Haswell, Richard H. “Teaching of writing in higher education.” Handbook of research on writing: History, society, school, individual, text (2008): 331-346.

Hayes, John R. “Identifying the organization of writing process.” Cognitive processes in writing(1980): 3-30.

Hyland, Ken. “Genre-based pedagogies: A social response to process.” Journal of second language writing 12.1 (2003): 17-29.

Hyland, Ken. Teaching and researching writing. Routledge, 2015.

Isaacson, Mary M., and Stephen Gleason. “Using the new basals to teach the writing process: Modifications for students with learning problems.” Reading & Writing Quarterly 17.1 (2001): 75-92.

Kellogg, Ronald T. “Training writing skills: A cognitive developmental perspective.” Journal of writing research 1.1 (2008).

Kent, Thomas, ed. Post-process theory: Beyond the writing-process paradigm. SIU Press, 1999.

Kiuhara, Sharlene A., Steve Graham, and Leanne S. Hawken. “Teaching writing to high school students: A national survey.” Journal of Educational Psychology 101.1 (2009): 136.

Limpo, Teresa, and Rui A. Alves. “Relating Beliefs in Writing Skill Malleability to Writing Performance: The Mediating Roles of Achievement Goals and Self-Efficacy.” Journal of Writing Research 9.2 (2017): 97-125.


Lunsford, Karen J. “Contextualizing Toulmin’s model in the writing classroom: A case study.” Written Communication 19.1 (2002): 109-174.

MacArthur, Charles A., and Zoi A. Philippakos. “Self-regulated strategy instruction in developmental writing: A design research project.” Community College Review 41.2 (2013): 176-195.

Marlink, Jayne, and Juliet Wahleithner. “Improving students’ academic writing: Building a bridge to success.” Berkeley, CA: California Writing Project (2011).

McLeod, Susan H. “Writing across the curriculum: The second stage, and beyond.” College Composition and Communication 40.3 (1989): 337-343.

McComiskey, Bruce. “Teaching composition as a social process.” (2000).

Melzer, Dan. “Writing assignments across the curriculum: A national study of college writing.” College Composition and Communication 61.2 (2009): W240.

National Commission on Writing. “The neglected R: The need for a writing revolution.” (2003)

Pajares, Frank. “Self-efficacy beliefs, motivation, and achievement in writing: A review of the literature.” Reading & Writing Quarterly 19.2 (2003): 139-158.

Paz, Susan De La. “Managing cognitive demands for writing: Comparing the effects of instructional components in strategy instruction.” Reading & Writing Quarterly 23.3 (2007): 249-266.

Perin, Dolores. “Best practices in teaching writing for college and career readiness.” Best practices in writing instruction (2013): 48-72.

Perin, Dolores, et al. “Text-based writing of low-skilled postsecondary students: relation to comprehension, self-efficacy and teacher judgments.” Reading and Writing 30.4 (2017): 887-915.

Prior, Paul. “A sociocultural theory of writing.” Handbook of writing research (2006): 54-66.

Read, Sylvia, and Melanie M. Landon-Hays. “The knowing/doing gap: Challenges of effective writing instruction in high school.” Teaching/Writing: The Journal of Writing Teacher Education 2.2 (2013): 3.

Rottenberg, Annette T., and Donna Haisty Winchell. Elements of argument: A text and reader. Macmillan, 2011.

Rowlands, Kathleen Dudden. “Slay the monster! Replacing form-first pedagogy with effective writing instruction.” English Journal 105.6 (2016): 52.

Santangelo, Tanya, Karen R. Harris, and Steve Graham. “Using self-regulated strategy development to support students who have “trubol giting thangs into werds”.” Remedial and special education 29.2 (2008): 78-89.

Santelises, Sonja, & Joan Dabrowski. “Checking In: Do Classroom Assignments Reflect Today’s Higher Standards?” Equity in Motion Series. The Education Trust. Sept. 2015.

Scherff, Lisa, and Carolyn Piazza. “The more things change, the more they stay the same: A survey of high school students’ writing experiences.” Research in the Teaching of English (2005): 271-304.

Sperling, Melanie, and Anne DiPardo. “English education research and classroom practice: New directions for new times.” Review of research in education 32.1 (2008): 62-108.

Sperling, Melanie, and Sarah Warshauer Freedman. “Research on writing.” Handbook of research on teaching 4 (2001): 370-389.

Sullivan, Patrick, and Howard B. Tinberg. What is “college-level” writing?. Natl Council of Teachers, 2006.

Sullivan, Patrick, Howard B. Tinberg, and Sheridan D. Blau, eds. What is “college-level writing?”: Assignments, Readings, and Student Writing Samples. National Council of Teachers of English, 2010.

Thaiss, Chris, and Terry Myers Zawacki. “Engaged writers dynamic disciplines.” Engaged writers dynamic disciplines (2006).

Toulmin, Stephen Edelston, Richard D. Rieke, and Allan Janik. An introduction to reasoning. Macmillan, 1984.

Trimbur, John. “Taking the social turn: Teaching writing post-process.” (1994): 108-118.

Troia, Gary A. “Research in writing instruction: What we know and what we need to know.” Shaping literacy achievement: Research we have, research we need (2007): 129-156.

Troia, Gary A., and Natalie G. Olinghouse. “The Common Core State Standards and evidence-based educational practices: The case of writing.” School Psychology Review 42.3 (2013): 343.

Troia, Gary A., et al. “The Common Core Writing Standards: A Descriptive Study of Content and Alignment with a Sample of Former State Standards.” Reading Horizons 55.3 (2016): 98-141.

Yancey, Kathleen Blake. “A call to support 21st century writing.” Writing in the 21st Century: A Report from the National Council of Teachers of English. Urbana: NCTE (2009): 1-9.

Zimmerman, Barry J., and Rafael Risemberg. “Becoming a self-regulated writer: A social cognitive perspective.” Contemporary educational psychology 22.1 (1997): 73-101.

Learning

Adelman, Clifford. “The toolbox revisited: Paths to degree completion from high school through college.” US Department of Education (2006).

Amrein, Audrey L., and D. Berliner. “Student Motivation and Learning.” NJ USA: HW Wilson Co (2003).

Association of American Colleges, and National Leadership Council (US). College learning for the new global century: A report from the national leadership council for liberal education & America’s promise. Assn of Amer Colleges, 2007.

Au, Kathryn H. “A multicultural perspective on policies for improving literacy achievement: Equity and excellence.” (2000).

Bettinger, Eric P., Angela Boatman, and Bridget Terry Long. “Student supports: Developmental education and other academic programs.” The Future of Children 23.1 (2013): 93-115.

Cazden, Courtney B. “The language of teaching and learning.” The language of teaching and learning (2001): 348-369.

Conley, D. T., et al. “College Board Advanced Placement best practices course study report.” (2006).

Durlak, Joseph A., ed. Handbook of social and emotional learning: Research and practice. Guilford Publications, 2015.

Gee, James Paul. “Reading as situated language: A sociocognitive perspective.” Journal of adolescent & adult Literacy 44.8 (2001): 714-725.

Gutiérrez, Kris D., P. Zitlali Morales, and Danny C. Martinez. “Re-mediating literacy: Culture, difference, and learning for students from nondominant communities.” Review of research in education 33.1 (2009): 212-245.

Heath, Shirley Brice. Ways with words: Language, life and work in communities and classrooms. cambridge university Press, 1983.

Kober, Nancy, and Diane Stark Rentner. “Common Core State Standards: Progress and Challenges in School Districts’ Implementation.” Center on Education Policy (2011).

Lee, Jin Sook, and Kate T. Anderson. “Negotiating linguistic and cultural identities: Theorizing and constructing opportunities and risks in education.” Review of Research in Education 33.1 (2009): 181-211.

Mehan, Hugh. “‘What time is it, Denise?”: Asking known information questions in classroom discourse.” Theory into practice 18.4 (1979): 285-294.

Mintrop, Heinrich, and Gail L. Sunderman. “Predictable failure of federal sanctions-driven accountability for school improvement—and why we may retain it anyway.” Educational Researcher 38.5 (2009): 353-364.

Mo, Ya, et al. “The neglected ‘R’ in a time of Common Core.” The Reading Teacher 67.6 (2014): 445-453.

Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan, and Laura Klenk. “Examining and influencing contexts for intentional literacy learning.” Teaching thinking: An agenda for the twenty-first century (1992): 297-315.

Perry, Kristen H. “What Is Literacy?–A Critical Overview of Sociocultural Perspectives.” Journal of Language and Literacy Education 8.1 (2012): 50-71.

Purcell-Gates, V., and R. Tierney. “Public policy brief: Increasing literacy levels of Canadian students.” Retrieved February 21 (2009): 2010.

Ravitch, Diane. “The Common Core Costs Billions and Hurts Students.” The New York Times. July 23, 2016.

Assessment

Au, Wayne. “High-stakes testing and curricular control: A qualitative metasynthesis.” Educational researcher 36.5 (2007): 258-267.

Au, Wayne, and Karen Gourd. “Asinine assessment: Why high-stakes testing is bad for everyone, including English teachers.” English Journal (2013): 14-19.

Beck, Sarah W., and Jill V. Jeffery. “Genres of high-stakes writing assessments and the construct of writing competence.” Assessing writing 12.1 (2007): 60-79.

Behizadeh, Nadia, and George Engelhard Jr. “Historical view of the influences of measurement and writing theories on the practice of writing assessment in the United States.” Assessing writing 16.3 (2011): 189-211.

Behizadeh, Nadia, and Tom Liam Lynch. “Righting Technologies: How Large-Scale Assessment Can Foster a More Equitable Education System.” Berkeley Review of Education 7.1 (2017).

Behizadeh, Nadia, and Myoung Eun Pang. “Awaiting a new wave: The status of state writing assessment in the United States.” Assessing Writing 29 (2016): 25-41.

Bennett, Randy Elliot. “The changing nature of educational assessment.” Review of Research in Education 39.1 (2015): 370-407.

Brown, Richard S., and David T. Conley. “Comparing state high school assessments to standards for success in entry-level university courses.” Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. 12.2 (2007): 137-160.

Conley, David. “A new era for educational assessment.” Education Policy Analysis Archives/Archivos Analíticos de Políticas Educativas 23 (2015).

Hamp-Lyons, Liz. “The scope of writing assessment.” Assessing writing 8.1 (2002): 5-16.

Herrington, Anne, and Charles Moran. “Writing to a machine is not writing at all.” Writing assessment in the 21st century: Essays in honor of Edward M. White (2012): 219-232.

Hillocks, George. The testing trap: How state writing assessments control learning. Teachers College Press, 2002.

Jeffery, Jill V. “Constructs of writing proficiency in US state and national writing assessments: Exploring variability.” Assessing Writing 14.1 (2009): 3-24.

Ketter, Jean, and Jonelle Pool. “Exploring the impact of a high-stakes direct writing assessment in two high school classrooms.” Research in the Teaching of English (2001): 344-393.

Madaus, George. “A technological and historical consideration of equity issues associated with proposals to change the nation’s testing policy.” Harvard Educational Review 64.1 (1994): 76-96.

Moss, Pamela A., et al., eds. Assessment, equity, and opportunity to learn. Cambridge University Press, 2008.

National Council of Teachers of English. “NCTE position statement on machine scoring: Machine scoring fails the test.” (2013). 


Nichols, Sharon L., and D. Berliner. “Collateral damage.” How High-Stakes Testing Corrupts America’s Schools. Cambridge, Mass (2007).

Sparks, Jesse R., et al. “Assessing written communication in higher education: Review and recommendations for next‐generation assessment.” ETS Research Report Series 2014.2 (2014): 1-52.

Watanabe, Maika. “Displaced teacher and state priorities in a high-stakes accountability context.” Educational Policy 21.2 (2007): 311-368.

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